The latest version of Circulating Cells implements the upwelling and downwelling radiation calculations we described in Up and Down Radiation. To run the program, download CC11 and follow the instructions at the top of the code. Clouds absorb and emit long-wave radiation as if they were black bodies. We now set the transparency fraction of our atmospheric gas to 0.5, so that it will be transparent to half the wavelengths in the long-wave spectrum and opaque otherwise. The planet surface can radiate heat directly into space at these transparent wavelengths, as it did in Simulated Planet Surface. But now we have clouds doing the same thing, while at the same time reflecting sunlight back into space.
We begin our simulation with the final state of Simulated Rain, which you will find in SR_1200hr. The initial surface air temperature is 292 K, and cloud depth is 1.5 mm. The following graph shows how air temperature and cloud depth vary in the first two thousand hours.
The following graph shows the first fourteen thousand hours. You will find the final state of the array in RC_14000hr. The average surface air temperature over the final ten thousand hours is 288 K, and the average cloud depth is 0.8 mm.
During the course of these fourteen thousand hours, the distribution of clouds in the atmosphere varies greatly. Sometimes there is a layer of clouds just above the surface of the sea. At other times there are clouds along much of the tropopause. For a view of the final state of the simulation, see here.
As we have discussed many times before, the absorption of long-wave radiation by the atmosphere gives rise to the greenhouse effect. The more opaque the atmosphere, the more heat must be radiated into space by the tropopause instead of the planet surface. In order to radiate more heat, the tropopause must be warmer. If the tropopause is warmer, the planet surface must be warmer too, in order to motivate convection to carry heat to the tropopause. When we change our atmospheric gas from 0% to 50% transparency, we expect the surface temperature drop. And indeed it does: by 4°C.
This cooling of 4°C is, however, far less than the cooling of 31°C we observed when we increased the transparency of our gas from 0% to 50% in the absence of simulated clouds. As we have already discussed, clouds and rain greatly reduce the sensitivity of surface temperature to changes in solar power. Now we find that they also greatly reduce the sensitivity of surface temperature to changes in the transparency of the atmospheric gas.