Once we were satisfied that our simulation handled convection properly, that we could relate the program iterations to the passage of time, and that all the heat entering the simulated system was accounted for by radiation from the top, we added blocks of either water or sand beneath the bottom gas cells, so as to simulate the planet surface. In Back Radiation we showed how the heat capacity and radiation produced by a semi-transparent atmosphere keeps the planet surface warm at night. In Island Inversion we see the surface of an island heating up ten times more than the surrounding ocean, while at night a layer of air a few hundred meters above the island is warmer, rather than cooler, than the air resting upon the island. Thus we see our simulation is consistent with our observations of surface cooling, including even temperature inversion.
Well-satisfied with our simulation of a dry atmosphere, we now turn to the simulation of a wet atmosphere, in which evaporation will cool the ocean and lead to the formation of clouds. To simulate cloud formation, we must have equations for the rate of evaporation from a water surface, the rate at which water vapor will condense out of rising air, the rate at which it will evaporate again in falling air, the cooling effect of evaporation upon the water surface, the warming effect of condensation upon the rising air, the amount of sunlight that will be reflected by existing clouds, and the amount of long-wave radiation that these same clouds will absorb and radiate. We obtained these relations in a series of posts Evaporation Rate to Consensation Rate. We have yet to consider the downward drift of water droplets that leads to their combining together and forming rain. But after so many posts of mathematics and empirical relations, we thought it was time to get back to the simulation, and so we will start our simulation of clouds without allowing rain, and perhaps we will see how important rain is for our climate.
We are running CC9 right now, and will present it later this week, once I have made a reasonable effort to eliminate errors from my implementation of evaporation, condensation, and reflection. The clouds are going round right now, as gray-shaded cells, and the effect is entertaining. Ultimately, you may recall, our objective is to see how a change in the transparency of the dry atmosphere affects the surface temperature of the planet, so that we can determine the effect of CO2 doubling within a system dominated by the effect of cloud formation and rain.