In our previous post, we presented our simulation of clouds without rain. We started the atmospheric gas, the sandy island, and the watery sea, at a uniform 280 K (7°C). Water evaporated from the sea. The sand heated up in the sun. Hot air rose above the island and sucked moist air in from the sea. Clouds formed above the island, spread through the atmosphere, reflected the heat of the sun, and the world froze.
What if we start with a frozen world and a dry atmosphere? In our simulation of evaporation rate, no water will evaporate from a sea at 250 K (−23°C), so no clouds will form. We ran CC9, starting with the CS_0hr array, to find out what would happen. Our starting point is a uniform 250 K with no water vapor. We run with 350 W/m2 continuous heat from the Sun.
After 20 hrs, the sandy island has warmed to 276 K (3°C). At 30 hrs, the average cloud depth is 0.03 mm, which is so thin that we don't bother plotting the clouds as white cells. But at 40 hrs we start to see the first thin clouds, and the average power arriving from the Sun drops to 335 W/m2. At 50 hrs, the island reaches 283 K (10°C). From here on, it cools. At 100 hrs, the average cloud depth is 3.5 mm and only 120 W/m2 is arriving from the Sun. The sea reaches 267 K (−6°C), which is the warmest it will ever get. By 200 hrs, cloud depth is 7.2 mm and power arriving from the Sun is only 40 W/m2, as recored in CS_200hr.
We can see where the simulation is going to end up: a world kept frozen by immortal clouds. Regardless of our starting point, immortal clouds reflect the Sun's heat and cause the world to freeze.